Grounds maintenance workers ensure that the grounds of houses, businesses, parks, and urban infrastructure are attractive, orderly, and healthy in order to provide a pleasant outdoor environment.

Duties

Grounds maintenance workers typically do the following:

  • Mow, edge, and fertilize lawns
  • Weed and mulch landscape beds
  • Trim hedges, shrubs, and small trees
  • Remove dead, damaged, or unwanted trees
  • Plant flowers, trees, and shrubs
  • Water lawns, landscapes, and gardens
  • Monitor and maintain plant health

Grounds maintenance workers are generally under the direction of a professional grounds manager and perform a variety of tasks to achieve a pleasant and functional outdoor environment. They also care for indoor gardens and plants in commercial and public facilities, such as malls, hotels, and botanical gardens.

The following are examples of types of grounds maintenance workers:

Landscaping workers plant trees, flowers, and shrubs to create new outdoor spaces or upgrade existing ones. They also trim, fertilize, mulch, and water plants. Some grade and install lawns or construct hardscapes such as walkways, patios, and decks. Others help install lighting or sprinkler systems. Landscaping workers are employed in a variety of residential and commercial settings, such as homes, apartment buildings, office buildings, shopping malls, and hotels and motels.

Groundskeeping workers, also called groundskeepers, maintain grounds. They care for plants and trees, rake and mulch leaves, and clear snow from walkways. They work on athletic fields, golf courses, cemeteries, university campuses, and parks, as well as in many of the same settings that landscaping workers work. They also see to the proper upkeep of sidewalks, parking lots, fountains, fences, planters, and benches, as well as groundskeeping equipment.

Groundskeeping workers who care for athletic fields keep natural and artificial turf in top condition, mark out boundaries, and paint turf with team logos and names before events. They mow, water, fertilize, and aerate the fields regularly. They must ensure that the underlying soil on fields with natural turf has the composition required to allow proper drainage and to support the grass used on the field. In sports venues, they vacuum and disinfect synthetic turf to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria and they remove the turf and replace the cushioning pad periodically.

Groundskeepers in parks and recreation facilities care for lawns, trees, and shrubs; maintain playgrounds; clean buildings; and keep parking lots, picnic areas, and other public spaces free of litter. They also may erect and dismantle snow fences and maintain swimming pools. These workers inspect buildings and equipment, make needed repairs, and keep everything freshly painted.

Some groundskeepers specialize in caring for cemeteries and memorial gardens. They dig graves to specified depths, generally using a backhoe. They mow grass regularly, apply fertilizers and other chemicals, prune shrubs and trees, plant flowers, and remove debris from graves.

Greenskeepers maintain golf courses. Their work is similar to that of groundskeepers, but they also periodically relocate holes on putting greens and maintain benches and tee markers along the course and provide more intense turf maintenance. In addition, greenskeepers keep canopies, benches, and tee markers repaired and freshly painted.

Pesticide handlers, sprayers, and applicators apply herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides on plants or the soil to prevent or control weeds, insects, and diseases. Those who work for chemical lawn or tree service firms are more specialized, inspecting lawns for problems and applying fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals to stimulate growth and prevent or control weeds, diseases, or insect infestations.

Tree trimmers and pruners, also called arborists, cut away dead or excess branches from trees or shrubs to clear utility lines, roads, and sidewalks. Many of these workers strive to improve the appearance and health of trees and plants, and some specialize in diagnosing and treating tree diseases. Others specialize in pruning, trimming, and shaping ornamental trees and shrubs. Tree trimmers and pruners use chain saws, chippers, and stump grinders while on the job. When trimming near power lines, they usually work on truck-mounted lifts and use power pruners.

Grounds maintenance workers held about 1.3 million jobs in 2018. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up grounds maintenance workers was distributed as follows:

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers 1,205,200
Tree trimmers and pruners 55,600
Pesticide handlers, sprayers, and applicators, vegetation 35,700
Grounds maintenance workers, all other 17,700

The largest employers of grounds maintenance workers were as follows:

Services to buildings and dwellings 45%
Self-employed workers 22
Government 8
Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries 7
Educational services; state, local, and private 3

Grounds maintenance work is done outdoors in all kinds of weather. The work can be repetitive and physically demanding, requiring frequent bending, lifting, and shoveling.

Injuries and Illnesses

Grounds maintenance work can be dangerous. Workers who use equipment such as lawnmowers and chain saws must wear protective clothing, eyewear, and earplugs. Those who apply chemicals such as pesticides or fertilizers must wear protective gear, including appropriate clothing, gloves, goggles, and sometimes respirators.

Tree trimmers and pruners and “grounds maintenance workers, all other” have some of the highest rates of injuries and illnesses of all occupations.

And although fatalities are uncommon, tree trimmers and pruners experience one of the highest rates of occupational fatalities of all occupations. These workers, who often work at great heights, must always use fall protection gear in addition to wearing hardhats and eye protection for most activities.

Work Schedules

Many grounds maintenance jobs are seasonal. Jobs are most common in the spring, summer, and fall, when planting, mowing, and trimming are most frequent. However, many also provide other seasonal services, such as snow removal and installation and removal of holiday décor.

Most grounds maintenance workers need no formal education and are trained on the job. Most states require licensing for workers who apply pesticides and fertilizers.

Education

Although most grounds maintenance jobs have no education requirements, some employers may require formal education or certification in areas such as landscape design, horticulture, or arboriculture.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Most states require workers who apply pesticides and fertilizers to be licensed. Obtaining a license usually involves passing a test on the proper use and disposal of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides.

Although professional certification is not required, it can demonstrate competency and reliability for prospective clients and employers.

The National Association of Landscape Professionals offers seven certifications in landscaping and grounds maintenance for workers at various experience levels.

The Tree Care Industry Association offers certification for tree care safety professionals.

The International Society of Arboriculture offers six certifications for workers at various experience levels.

The Professional Grounds Management Society offers certification for workers at various experience levels.

Training

A short period of on-the-job training is usually enough to teach new hires the skills they need, which often include how to plant and maintain areas and how to use mowers, trimmers, leaf blowers, small tractors, and other equipment. Large institutional employers such as golf courses, university campuses, or municipalities may supplement on-the-job training with coursework in horticulture, arboriculture, urban forestry, insect and disease diagnosis, tree climbing, or small-engine repair.

Advancement

Grounds maintenance workers who have good communication skills may become crew leaders or advance into other supervisory positions. Becoming a manager or a landscape contractor may require some formal education and several years of related work experience. Some workers use their experience to start their own landscaping companies.

Important Qualities

Physical stamina. Grounds maintenance workers must be capable of doing physically strenuous labor for long hours, occasionally in extreme heat or cold.

Self-motivated. Because they often work with little supervision, grounds maintenance workers must be able to do their job independently.

Visualization. Grounds maintenance workers must have the ability to imagine how plants, trees, shrubs, and other landscaping will look before planting or trimming.

The median hourly wage for grounds maintenance workers was $14.13 in May 2018.

The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.03, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $22.35.

Median hourly wages for grounds maintenance workers in May 2018 were as follows:

Tree trimmers and pruners $18.36
Pesticide handlers, sprayers, and applicators, vegetation 16.98
Grounds maintenance workers, all other 14.63
Landscaping and groundskeeping workers 13.94

In May 2018, the median hourly wages for grounds maintenance workers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Educational services; state, local, and private $15.96
Government 14.74
Services to buildings and dwellings 14.29
Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries 12.21

Many grounds maintenance jobs are seasonal. Jobs are most common in the spring, summer, and fall, when planting, mowing, and trimming are most frequent. However, many also provide other seasonal services, such as snow removal and installation and removal of holiday décor.

Grounds Maintenance Workers

Median hourly wages, May 2018

Total, all occupations

$18.58

Grounds maintenance workers

$14.13

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

$12.91

 

Overall employment of grounds maintenance workers is projected to grow 9 percent from 2018 to 2028, faster than the average for all occupations. Employment growth will vary by specialty.

Employment of landscaping and groundskeeping workers—the largest specialty—is projected to grow 9 percent from 2018 to 2028, faster than the average for all occupations. More workers will be needed to keep up with increasing demand for lawn care and landscaping services from aging or busy homeowners and large institutions, such as universities and corporate campuses. The growing popularity of outdoor kitchen and living areas should also increase demand for the services these workers provide.

Employment of tree trimmers and pruners is projected to grow 10 percent from 2018 to 2028, faster than the average for all occupations. Many municipalities are planting more trees in urban areas, likely increasing the demand for these workers.

Job Prospects

Overall job opportunities are expected to be very good. Job opportunities will stem from employment growth and from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation each year.

Job opportunities should be best in areas with temperate climates, where more landscaping services are required year round.

Employment projections data for grounds maintenance workers, 2018-28
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2018 Projected Employment, 2028 Change, 2018-28 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Grounds maintenance workers

37-3000 1,314,200 1,429,500 9 115,300 Get data

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

37-3011 1,205,200 1,311,600 9 106,400 Get data

Pesticide handlers, sprayers, and applicators, vegetation

37-3012 35,700 38,200 7 2,400 Get data

Tree trimmers and pruners

37-3013 55,600 61,100 10 5,500 Get data

Grounds maintenance workers, all other

37-3019 17,700 18,600 6 1,000 Get data

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of grounds maintenance workers.

Occupation Job Duties Entry-Level Education Median Annual Pay, May 2018

Agricultural Workers

Agricultural workers maintain crops and tend to livestock.

See How to Become One $24,620

Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers operate establishments that produce crops, livestock, and dairy products.

High school diploma or equivalent $67,950

Forest and Conservation Workers

Forest and conservation workers measure and improve the quality of forests.

High school diploma or equivalent $27,460

Janitors and Building Cleaners

Janitors and building cleaners keep many types of buildings clean, orderly, and in good condition.

No formal educational credential $26,110

Landscape Architects

Landscape architects design parks and other outdoor spaces.

Bachelor’s degree $68,230

Logging Workers

Logging workers harvest forests to provide the raw material for many consumer goods and industrial products.

High school diploma or equivalent $40,650

Pest Control Workers

Pest control workers remove unwanted pests that infest buildings and surrounding areas.

High school diploma or equivalent $35,610

For more information about tree trimmers and pruners, including certification, visit

International Society of Arboriculture

Tree Care Industry Association

For information about landscaping and groundskeeping workers, visit

National Association of Landscape Professionals

Professional Grounds Management Society

For information about becoming a licensed pesticide applicator, contact your state’s licensing official.

O*NET

Grounds Maintenance Workers, All Other

Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers

Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation

Tree Trimmers and Pruners


Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Grounds Maintenance Workers,
on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/building-and-grounds-cleaning/grounds-maintenance-workers.htm (visited ).