Janitors and Building Cleaners

Janitors and building cleaners keep many types of buildings clean, orderly, and in good condition.


Janitors and building cleaners typically do the following:

  • Gather and empty trash
  • Sweep, mop, or vacuum building floors
  • Clean restrooms and stock them with supplies
  • Lock doors to secure buildings
  • Clean spills and other hazards with appropriate equipment
  • Wash windows, walls, and glass
  • Order cleaning supplies
  • Make minor building repairs
  • Notify managers when a building needs major repairs

Janitors and building cleaners keep office buildings, schools, hospitals, retail stores, hotels, and other places clean, sanitary, and in good condition. Some only clean, while others have a wide range of duties.

In addition to keeping the inside of buildings clean and orderly, some janitors and building cleaners work outdoors, mowing lawns, sweeping walkways, and removing snow. Some workers also monitor the building’s heating and cooling system, ensuring that it functions properly.

Janitors and building cleaners use many tools and equipment. Simple cleaning tools may include mops, brooms, rakes, and shovels. Other tools may include snowblowers, floor buffers, and carpet extraction equipment.

Some janitors are responsible for repairing minor electrical or plumbing problems, such as leaky faucets.

The following are examples of types of janitors and building cleaners:

Building superintendents are responsible for maintaining residential buildings, such as apartments and condominiums. Although their duties are similar to those of other janitors, some building superintendents also help collect rent and show vacancies to potential tenants.

Custodians are janitors or cleaning workers who typically maintain institutional facilities, such as public schools and hospitals.

Janitors and building cleaners held about 2.4 million jobs in 2018. The largest employers of janitors and building cleaners were as follows:

Services to buildings and dwellings 37%
Elementary and secondary schools; state, local, and private 13
Healthcare and social assistance 7
Government 5
Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations 5

Most janitors and building cleaners work indoors, but some work outdoors part of the time, sweeping walkways, mowing lawns, and shoveling snow. They spend most of the day walking, standing, or bending while cleaning. Sometimes they must move or lift heavy supplies and equipment. As a result, the work may be strenuous on the back, arms, and legs. Some tasks, such as cleaning restrooms and trash areas, can be dirty and unpleasant.

Injuries and Illnesses

Janitors and building cleaners sometimes get injured on the job. For example, they may suffer minor cuts, bruises, and burns from machines, tools, and chemicals. As a result, workers increasingly receive safety and ergonomics training.

Most janitors and building cleaners learn on the job. Formal education is not required.


Janitors and building cleaners do not need any formal educational credential. However, high school courses in shop can be helpful for jobs involving repair work.


Most janitors and building cleaners learn on the job. Beginners typically work with a more experienced janitor, learning how to use and maintain equipment such as vacuums, floor buffers, and other tools. On the job, they also learn how to repair minor electrical and plumbing problems.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Although not required, certification is available through the Building Service Contractors Association International, the IEHA (formerly International Executive Housekeepers Association), and ISSA—The International Sanitary Supply Association. Certification can demonstrate competence and may make applicants more appealing to employers.

Important Qualities

Interpersonal skills. Janitors and building cleaners should get along well with their supervisors, other cleaners, and the people who live or work in the buildings they clean.

Mechanical skills. Janitors and building cleaners should understand general building operations. They should be able to make routine repairs, such as repairing leaky faucets.

Physical stamina. Janitors and building cleaners spend most of their workday on their feet, operating cleaning equipment and lifting and moving supplies or tools. As a result, they should have good physical stamina.

Physical strength. Janitors and building cleaners often must lift and move cleaning materials and heavy equipment. Cases of liquid cleaner and trash receptacles, for example, can be very heavy, so workers should be strong enough to lift them without injuring their back.

Time-management skills. Janitors and building cleaners should be able to plan and complete tasks in a timely manner.

The median hourly wage for janitors and building cleaners was $12.55 in May 2018.

The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.16, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $20.84.

In May 2018, the median hourly wages for janitors and building cleaners in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Government $15.89
Elementary and secondary schools; state, local, and private 14.57
Healthcare and social assistance 12.74
Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations 12.18
Services to buildings and dwellings 11.82

Most janitors and building cleaners work full time. Because office buildings are often cleaned while they are empty, many cleaners work evening hours. When there is a need for 24-hour maintenance, as there often is in hospitals and hotels, cleaners work in shifts.

Janitors and Building Cleaners

Median hourly wages, May 2018

Total, all occupations


Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners


Building cleaning and pest control workers



Employment of janitors and building cleaners is projected to grow 7 percent from 2018 to 2028, faster than the average for all occupations. Many new jobs are expected in industries such as administrative and support services, educational services, and healthcare.

In addition, as more companies outsource their cleaning services, cleaning or janitorial contractors are likely to benefit and experience employment growth.

Job Prospects

Overall job prospects are expected to be favorable. Many job openings will come from the need to replace workers who leave or retire from this very large occupation.

Employment projections data for janitors and building cleaners, 2018-28
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2018 Projected Employment, 2028 Change, 2018-28 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

37-2011 2,404,400 2,564,200 7 159,800 Get data

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of janitors and building cleaners.

Occupation Job Duties Entry-Level Education Median Annual Pay, May 2018

Grounds Maintenance Workers

Grounds maintenance workers ensure that the grounds of houses, businesses, and parks are attractive, orderly, and healthy.

See How to Become One $29,400

Pest Control Workers

Pest control workers remove unwanted pests that infest buildings and surrounding areas.

High school diploma or equivalent $35,610

For more information about janitors and building cleaners, visit

Association of Residential Cleaning Services International

Building Service Contractors Association International

IEHA (formerly International Executive Housekeepers Association)

ISSA-The Worldwide Cleaning Industry Association

Information about janitorial and building cleaning jobs is available from state employment service offices.


Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners

Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Janitors and Building Cleaners,
on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/building-and-grounds-cleaning/janitors-and-building-cleaners.htm (visited ).


Tracey Lamphere

Tracey Lamphere, M.S. IMC is the editor of Job Affirmations, a publication that provides information and ideas to use mindfulness, positive affirmations, and visualizations to transform your career.

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